9th Aug 2023 -

Understanding the world beneath our feet is fundamental to successful gardening and landscaping, whether you're a professional landscaper or a home gardening enthusiast. By understanding and applying the principles of soil science, we can foster healthier, more productive gardens, landscapes, and ecosystems.

What is Soil Science?

Soil science, encompassing the branches of Pedology and Edaphology, is more than just the study of Earth's crust. Pedology delves into soil formation and classification, while Edaphology focuses on the interaction between soils and organisms, such as the plants we cultivate in our gardens. These studies play pivotal roles in landscaping and gardening by guiding us in creating optimum environments for plant growth.

The Dirt on Soil Composition


Soil, far from being simply dirt under our feet, is a complex blend of minerals, organic matter, water, air, and microorganisms. Each component plays a critical role in creating a nurturing environment for plants.

  • Minerals form the foundation of soil composition. Derived from parent rock material weathered over time, they provide essential nutrients to plants. The mineral portion is composed of three particle sizes: sand, silt, and clay.
    • Sand is the coarsest soil particle, offering excellent drainage but lower nutrient retention.
    • Silt particles are medium-sized, offering a balance between drainage and nutrient retention.
    • Clay, the smallest particle, has excellent nutrient and water retention properties but poor drainage.
  • Organic matter, often referred to as humus, is the partially decomposed remains of plant and animal life. It is vital for soil fertility, holding nutrients, aiding in moisture retention, improving soil structure, and supporting the life of beneficial soil organisms.
  • Water and air occupy the spaces between the solid mineral and organic particles in the soil. These soil pores store water for plant use and hold air necessary for root and microorganism respiration. The balance between air and water within the soil pores can significantly impact plant health.
  • Microorganisms create a microscopic ecosystem, with bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, and more aiding in organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling, and disease suppression. This microbial activity is central to soil fertility and overall soil health.

Life Underground


The bustling community of "soil biota" consists of a variety of organisms, including insects, bacteria, fungi, and earthworms, each playing a crucial role in soil functionality.


As some of the smallest and most abundant creatures in the soil, bacteria play several crucial roles. Many are decomposers, breaking down organic matter into humus and releasing essential nutrients back into the soil. Others, like nitrogen-fixing bacteria, can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants can absorb, significantly contributing to soil fertility.


Soil fungi, including moulds and yeasts, are important decomposers. They break down tough organic materials that bacteria can't handle, such as cellulose and lignin from plant cell walls. Mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic relationships with plant roots, enhancing nutrient uptake and helping the plants access water and nutrients in exchange for sugars. Fungi also improve soil structure by binding soil particles together into aggregates, which improves soil's water-holding capacity and porosity.

Insects and Invertebrates

Soil insects and invertebrates, like beetles, ants, and earthworms, are integral to soil health. Earthworms significantly contribute to soil structure and aeration as they burrow through the soil, creating channels that allow air and water to penetrate deeper. Their digestion of organic matter produces nutrient-rich castings, contributing to the nutrient-cycling process.

Doing a Soil Checkup

A thorough soil checkup can highlight any potential problems and improve plant health across a garden. Here are the key indicators you should analyse when doing a soil checkup:

Soil Texture

The texture of the soil significantly influences its water retention, nutrient availability, and the ease with which roots penetrate it. Gardeners and landscapers can determine soil texture by hand or with a simple jar test. If the soil contains too much clay, it can be amended with organic matter or sand to improve drainage and structure. If it’s too sandy, adding compost or other organic matter can enhance water and nutrient retention.

Soil Drainage

flooded garden plants

Poor drainage can lead to waterlogged conditions detrimental to plant roots, while overly fast drainage may prevent plants from accessing the necessary water and nutrients. To assess your soil's drainage, dig a hole about a foot deep, fill it with water, and see how long it takes to drain. Slow-draining soils might require the addition of organic matter or sand to improve permeability, while fast-draining soils could benefit from organic matter to boost water retention.

Soil pH

The pH level of your soil influences nutrient availability and microbial activity. Most plants prefer a slightly acidic to neutral pH (6-7), but some, like rhododendrons and blueberries, prefer more acidic soils. You can use a soil testing kit to determine your soil pH. If your soil is too acidic, you can raise the pH by adding lime (calcium carbonate); if it's too alkaline, you can lower the pH with sulphur or organic matter like compost or peat moss.

Nutrient Levels

A professional soil test can provide detailed information about the nutrient content of your soil, including essential macronutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and important micronutrients such as iron and zinc. Depending on the test results, you may need to add specific fertilisers or amendments to address nutrient deficiencies.

Best Practices for Plant Health

Plant health is inextricably linked with the quality of the soil they inhabit. Here are the best practices to build and maintain productive soils, nurture your plants, and address common nutrient deficiencies and toxicities:

Building and Maintaining Productive Soils

Productive soils are alive with microorganisms, have good structure, and are nutrient-rich. Regular applications of organic matter, such as compost or well-rotted manure, can do wonders for your soil. Not only does this add nutrients, but it also improves the soil's structure, boosting its ability to hold onto nutrients and water while improving aeration.

Soil Preparation

Proper soil preparation provides a solid foundation for plant growth. This might involve removing weeds or previous crops and breaking up compacted soil to improve aeration and root penetration. In some cases, you might need to adjust the pH or add nutrients based on soil test results.


Mulching is a technique where a layer of organic or inorganic material is spread on the surface of the soil. Mulch helps to conserve soil moisture, reduce weed growth, moderate soil temperature and, in the case of organic mulches, add organic matter to the soil as it decomposes.



Fertilising provides plants with essential nutrients that might be deficient in the soil. Always base fertilisation practices on soil test results to avoid over-fertilisation, which can be harmful to plants and the environment. Consider using slow-release or organic fertilisers, which provide nutrients over a longer period and are less likely to contribute to nutrient runoff.

Crop Rotation

In landscapes or gardens where annuals are grown, rotating crops can help prevent the build-up of pests and diseases and can also prevent the depletion of specific nutrients. For instance, following a nitrogen-hungry plant like corn with a nitrogen-fixing plant like beans can help to maintain balanced nutrient levels.

Addressing Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities

Yellow leaves, stunted growth, and poor yields can all be signs of nutrient deficiencies. Common deficiencies include nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, but plants can also suffer from a lack of micronutrients like iron or zinc. A soil test can identify any deficiencies, which can be corrected by applying the appropriate fertiliser or soil amendment.

Nutrient toxicities can also occur when a particular nutrient is in excess. This might lead to symptoms like leaf burn or stunted growth. Often, toxicities occur because of over-fertilisation or a pH imbalance that makes certain nutrients overly available. In these cases, correcting the underlying issue usually resolves the problem.

Innovations in Soil Science

Advancements in soil science offer exciting prospects for landscapers, gardeners, and other professionals seeking to optimise soil health and plant performance. From advanced soil mapping and testing technologies to innovative soil amendments, these developments are reshaping our approach to soil management.

Soil Mapping and Testing Technologies

Traditional soil testing has always been a cornerstone of effective soil management. However, with advancements in technology, soil mapping and testing have become more sophisticated, providing more detailed and accurate insights.

For instance, digital soil mapping uses advanced algorithms and geospatial technologies to generate highly detailed maps of soil properties. This can guide precision agriculture practices, tailoring soil management and crop inputs to specific areas within a field or garden.

Similarly, portable in-field soil testing devices are emerging that allow instant measurement of soil pH, nutrient levels, and even microbial activity. These tools offer the potential for real-time decision-making, potentially transforming soil management practices.

Emerging Soil Amendments

Beyond soil mapping and testing technologies, innovative soil amendments are also coming to the fore, offering new ways to enhance soil health:

  • Microbial Inoculants: These products contain beneficial soil microbes that, when added to the soil, can enhance plant growth and soil health. They can improve nutrient cycling, help control pests and diseases, and even enhance plant resistance to stress.
  • Biochar: A form of charcoal produced by heating organic matter in a low-oxygen environment, biochar can be added to soil to improve its fertility and structure. It also has the potential to sequester carbon, contributing to climate change mitigation efforts.
  • Hydrogels: These water-absorbing polymers can improve soil water retention, particularly in sandy or drought-prone soils. Some newer hydrogels also contain slow-release nutrients, offering the potential to enhance both soil water and nutrient management.

The Future of Soil Health

As we delve deeper into the world of soil science, it becomes apparent that the future of soil health faces significant challenges, many of which are exacerbated by human activity. Key concerns include erosion, contamination, and the far-reaching impacts of climate change.

Challenges Facing Soils

  • Erosion: Soil erosion, driven by wind and water, leads to the loss of valuable topsoil, reducing soil fertility and productivity. Erosion is often accelerated by poor land management practices such as overgrazing, deforestation, and inappropriate cultivation techniques.
  • Contamination: Soil contamination is another major concern. Industrial processes, improper disposal of waste, and excessive use of pesticides and fertilisers can lead to the build-up of harmful substances in the soil, posing threats to both environmental and human health.
  • Climate Change: Climate change poses perhaps the biggest challenge to soils, with changing weather patterns leading to more intense periods of drought and flooding, affecting soil moisture levels and exacerbating erosion. Additionally, rising temperatures can alter soil biological activity, impacting nutrient cycling and other key soil functions.
flooded conrfield

Promoting Sustainability Through Soil Management

Despite these challenges, landscapers, gardeners, and other soil managers play a critical role in promoting soil health and sustainability. Here's how:

  • Soil Conservation Practices: Implementing practices that reduce erosion, such as cover cropping, mulching, and contour ploughing, can help protect valuable topsoil.
  • Organic Matter Management: Regularly adding organic matter, like compost or manure, can improve soil structure and fertility, boost soil biological activity, and enhance soil water retention, making soils more resilient to both drought and heavy rainfall.
  • Optimised Fertiliser Use: Careful management of fertiliser use, guided by regular soil testing, can help avoid nutrient imbalances and minimise the risk of contamination from nutrient runoff.
  • Adoption of Innovative Techniques: Emerging technologies and soil amendments offer promising avenues for sustainably enhancing soil health.

While the future of soil health faces significant challenges, we possess the tools and strategies to counter them. Through an informed understanding of soil science and a commitment to sustainable soil management practices, landscapers and gardeners can play an active role in protecting and enhancing our invaluable soil resources.

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